"X-macros" is a neat C and C++ technique that doesn’t get enough advertisement. Here’s the basic idea:
Suppose we have a table of similar records, each with the same schema. In games, this might be our collection of monster types (each with a display name, a representative icon, a dungeon level, a bitmask of special attack types, etc). In networking, this might be our collection of error codes (each with an integer value, a message string, etc).
We could encode that information into a data structure that we traverse at runtime to produce interesting effects — for example, an array of structs that we index into or loop over to answer a question like “What is the error string for this enumerator?” or “How many monsters have dungeon level 3?”.